Posted on March 21st, 2014

Bone spurs and sore feet | SHOES-n-FEET—Solutions for your foot pain

September 11, 2009 - 9:34am | JB says:

Peggy,It sounds like you are having some difficulties that do not sound too much fun.I can give you a few ideas of what to look for in footwear.These are just suggestions since I would need to see your foot to really make a recommendation.

The New Balance 768 is built on a PL/SL 1 semi-curved last (The last is what the shoe is built on).What does that mean?The PL/SL 1 means that it fits narrower and shallower than their other shoes, built on a PL/SL 2 last.With the spur/bump on your joint you want to have enough depth in the shoe so it does not put pressure downward on the big toe.The semi-curved fit is intended for someone who has a high arch with a little bit of pronation (collapsing of the arch inward).

With out knowing what your arch does it makes it difficult to recommend shoes for you.

General shoes characteristics I would think of for someone with your problems are:
1. Wide enough in the toe box
2. Deep enough toe box
3. Stiffer forefoot (where the shoe bends in thefront) having a forefoot rocker might take some pressure off of the ball of the foot, by not allowing the toes to bend as much.

For more specific information about the right shoes for your feet visit one of our Certified Shoe Fitting Specialists at your local SHOES-n-FEET store.

I am wondering if others have additional suggestions for Peggy?

Best regards,

SHOES-n-FEET -San Francisco

Posted on March 20th, 2014

Toe Pain From a Broken Toe - Toe Pain From a Broken or Fractured Toe
A broken toe is usually recognized immediately by severe pain and a cracking or popping sound that is heard as a small bone in the toe fractures. Most broken toes are the result of dropping something heavy on the toe. But a missed step, a stubbed toe or aggravated stress fractures from repeated impact on a hard surface may also result in a fractured toe.
Signs and Symptoms of a Broken ToeWhen a bone in the toes break, pain is immediate and usually quite intense. The affected toe will swell and bruise. And if the break is traumatic, the toe may look crooked or deformed. Typically a broken toe results in the inability to walk normally andpain with walking or putting on shoes.
When To See a Doctor for Toe PainAny traumatic toe injury or crushing toe injury should be seen by a physician. If you have any numbness or tingling, an open wound or bleeding, you should seek medical attention immediately.If you have an obvious deformity, a visit to the doctor for an x-ray will determine if the bone needs any special treatment such as splinting or applying a cast. Most toe fractures are treated with a small splint or "buddy taping," in which the broken toe is taped to the toe next to it in order to keep it stable and aligned as it heals.
Home Treatment for a Broken ToeMost toe fractures can be cared for at home with usual injury treatment that includes rest, ice and elevation.
While the bone heals, it's important to avoid walking or putting excess pressure on the joint. Ice the affected toe several times a day for no more than 20 minutes each time. Keep your foot elevatedto decrease the swelling in the foot.

A shoe with a stiff sole is usually recommended in order to prevent any movement of the joint while walking.

You may also want to talk with your doctor about using an over-the-counter pain medication.

Broken Toe ComplicationsThe most common complication of a broken toe is trauma to the toenail of the affected toe. Toenails may become discolored, turn black and blue and even fall out. The toenail will usually regrow normally, but it may be wise to see a podiatrist as you heal. A podiatrist can help you avoid ingrown toenails or any infection in the nail bed as your toe heals. If blood collects under the nail, a podiatrist may need tomake a small hole in the nail to allow the blood to escape.
Broken Toe Healing TimesAfter the splint or buddy taping is removed, it's important to begingentle stretching and range of motion exercises for the broken toe. The goal of the exercise is to obtain the same range of motion as the same toe on the opposite foot.
Most broken toes will heal within four to six weeks. Some people are more prone to chronic pain or stiffness in the affected joint, and in some cases, may develop arthritis in the future.

What Causes a Toe Stress FractureStress fractures in the bones of the feet or toes are usually caused by overtraining or overuse. They can also be caused by repeated pounding or impact on a hard surface, such as running of concrete. Increasing the time, type or intensity of exercise too rapidly is another cause of stress fractures to the feet, as is wearing improper footwear.
Any foot pain that continues for more than one week should be seen by a doctor for a thorough evaluation and diagnosis.


Robert L. Hatch, M.D., M.P.H, and Scott Hacking, M.D.,Evaluation and Management of Toe Fractures. The American Academy of Family Physicians, December 15, 2003.

Posted on March 18th, 2014

Foot Conditions | Bunionette (Tailor's Bunion) | Houston Methodist Orthopedics & Sports Medicine in the Greater Houston Area, TX


A Patient's Guide to Bunionette (Tailor's Bunion)
A Patient's Guide to Bunionette (Tailor's Bunion)
A bunionette is similar to a bunion, but it develops on the outside of the foot. It is sometimes referred to as a tailor's bunion because tailors once sat cross-legged all day with the outside edge of their feet rubbing on the ground. This produced a pressure area and callus at the bottom of the fifth toe.

This guide will help you understand
where a bunionette develops why a bunionette causes problems what can be done to treat a bunionette
Where does a bunionette develop?

A bunionette occurs over the area of the foot where the small toe connects to the foot. This area is called the metatarsophalangeal joint, or MTP joint. The metatarsals are the long bones of the foot. The phalanges are the small bones in each toe. The big toe has two phalanges, and the other toes have three phalanges each.

Related Document: A Patient's Guide to Foot Anatomy

How does a bunionette develop?

Today a bunionette is most likely caused by an abnormal bump over the end of the fifth metatarsal (the metatarsal head) rubbing on shoes that are too narrow. Some people's feet widen as they grow older, until the foot splays. This can cause a bunion on one side of the foot and a bunionette on the other if they continue to wear shoes that are too narrow. The constant pressure produces a callus and a thickening of the tissues over the bump, leading to a painful knob on the outside of the foot.

Related Document: A Patient's Guide to Bunions

Many problems that occur in the feet are the result of abnormal pressure or rubbing. One way of understanding what happens in the foot as a result of abnormal pressure is to view the foot simply. Essentially a foot is made up of hard bone covered by soft tissue that we then put a shoe on top of. Most of the symptoms that develop over time are because the skin and soft tissue are caught between the hard bone on the inside and the hard shoe on the outside.

Any prominence, or bump, in the bone will make the situation even worse over the bump. Skin responds to constant rubbing and pressure by forming a callus. The soft tissues underneath the skin respond to the constant pressure and rubbing by growing thicker. Both the thick callus and the thick soft tissues under it are irritated and painful. The answer to decreasing the pain is to remove the pressure. The pressure can be reduced from the outside by changing the pressure from the shoes. The pressure can be reduced from the inside by surgically removing any bony prominence.

What do bunionettes feel like?

The symptoms of a bunionette include pain and difficulty buying shoes that will not cause pain around the deformity. The swelling in the area causes a visible bump that some people find unsightly.

How do doctors identify a bunionette?

The diagnosis of a bunionette is usually obvious on physical examination. X-rays may help to see if the foot has splayed and will help decide what needs to be done if surgery is necessary later.

What can be done for a bunionette?

Nonsurgical Treatment
Treatment initially is directed at obtaining proper shoes that will accommodate the width of the forefoot. Pads over the area of the bunionette may help relieve some of the pressure and reduce pain. These pads are usually sold in drug and grocery stores. They are small and round with a hole in the middle, like a small doughnut.

If all else fails, surgery may be recommended to reduce the deformity. Surgery usually involves removing the prominence of bone underneath the bunion to relieve pressure. Surgery may also be done to realign the fifth metatarsal if the foot has splayed.
Bunionette Removal
To remove the prominence, the surgeon makes a small incision in the skin over the bump. The bump is then removed with a small chisel, and the bone edges are smoothed. Once enough bone has been removed, the skin is closed with small stitches.
 Distal Osteotomy
If your doctor decides that the angle of the metatarsal is too great, the fifth metatarsal bone may be cut and realigned. This is called an osteotomy. Once the surgeon has performed the osteotomy, the bones are realigned and held in position with metal pins. The metal pins remain in place while the bones heal.

What should I expect after treatment?

Nonsurgical Rehabilitation
Patients with a painful bunionette may benefit from four to six physical therapy treatments. Your therapist can offer ideas of shoes that have a wide forefoot, or toe box. The added space in this part of the shoe keeps the metatarsals from getting squeezed inside the shoe. A special pad can also be placed over the bunionette.

These simple changes to your footwear may allow you to resume normal walking immediately, but you should probably cut back on more vigorous activities for several weeks to allow the inflammation and pain to subside.

Treatments directed to the painful area help control pain and swelling. Examples include ultrasound, moist heat, and soft-tissue massage. Therapy sessions sometimes include iontophoresis, which uses a mild electrical current to push anti-inflammatory medicine to the sore area. This treatment is especially helpful for patients who can't tolerate injections.

After Surgery
Patients are usually fitted with a post-op shoe. This shoe has a stiff, wooden sole that protects the toes by keeping the foot from bending. Any pins are usually removed after the bone begins to mend (usually three or four weeks). You will probably need crutches briefly after surgery, and a therapist may be consulted to help you use your crutches.

You will probably wear a bandage or dressing for about a week following the procedure.The stitches are generally removed in 10 to 14 days. However, if your surgeon chose to use sutures that dissolve, you won't need to have the stitches taken out.

During your follow-up visits, X-rays will probably be taken so that the surgeon can follow the healing of the bones and determine how much correction has been achieved.
*Disclaimer:*The information contained herein is compiled from a variety of sources. It may not be complete or timely. It does not cover all diseases, physical conditions, ailments or treatments. The information should NOT be used in place of visit with your healthcare provider, nor should you disregard the advice of your health care provider because of any information you read in this topic.All content provided by eORTHOPOD(R) is a registered trademark of Medical Multimedia Group, L.L.C..Content is the sole property of Medical Multimedia Group, LLC and used herein by permission. PRINTABLE BOOKLET

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Posted on March 16th, 2014

Bunions, bunion pain, foot surgery, big toe joint
What Is a Bunion?

A bunion is an enlargement of the joint at the base of the big toe--the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint--that forms when the bone or tissue at the big toe joint moves out of place. This forces the toe to bend toward the others, causing an often painful lump of bone on the foot. Since this joint carries a lot of the body's weight while walking, bunions can cause extreme pain if left untreated. The MTP joint itself may become stiff and sore, making even the wearing of shoes difficult or impossible. A bunion--from the Latin "bunio," meaning enlargement--can also occur on the outside of the foot along the little toe, where it is called a "bunionette" or "tailor's bunion."

Development of a firm bump on the outside edge of the foot, at the base of the big toe.Redness, swelling, or pain at or near the MTP joint.Corns or other irritations caused by the overlap of the first and second toes.Restricted or painful motion of the big toe.
How Do You Get a Bunion?

Bunions form when the normal balance of forces that is exerted on the joints and tendons of the foot becomes disrupted. This can lead to instability in the joint and cause the deformity. They are brought about by years of abnormal motion and pressure over the MTP joint. They are, therefore, a symptom of faulty foot development and are usually caused by the way we walk, and our inherited foot type, our shoes, or other sources.

Although bunions tend to run in families, it is the foot type that is passed down--not the bunion. Parents who suffer from poor foot mechanics can pass their problematic foot type on to their children, who in turn are prone to developing bunions. The abnormal functioning caused by this faulty foot development can lead to pressure being exerted on and within the foot, often resulting in bone and joint deformities such as bunions and hammertoes.

Other causes of bunions are foot injuries, neuromuscular disorders, or congenital deformities. People who suffer from flat feet or low arches are also prone to developing these problems, as are arthritic patients and those with inflammatory joint disease. Occupations that place undue stress on the feet are also a factor; ballet dancers, for instance, often develop the condition.

Wearing shoes that are too tight or cause the toes to be squeezed together is also a common factor, one that explains the high prevalence of the disorder among women.

What Can You Do For Relief?
Apply a commercial, nonmedicated bunion pad around the bony prominence.Wear shoes with a wide and deep toe box.If your bunion becomes inflamed and painful, apply ice packs several times a day to reduce swelling.Avoid high-heeled shoes over two inches tall.See your podiatric physician if pain persists.
Conservative Treatment For Bunion Pain

Treatment options vary with the type and severity of each bunion, although identifying the deformity early in its development is important in avoiding surgery. Podiatric medical attention should be sought at the first indication of pain or discomfort because, left untreated, bunions tend to get larger and more painful, making nonsurgical treatment less of an option.

The primary goal of most early treatment options is to relieve pressure on the bunion and halt the progression of the joint deformity. A podiatric physician may recommend these treatments:
Padding & Taping
Often the first step in a treatment plan, padding the bunion minimizes pain and allows the patient to continue a normal, active life. Taping helps keep the foot in a normal position, thus reducing stress and pain.Medication
Anti-inflammatory drugs and cortisone injections are often prescribed to ease the acute pain and inflammations caused by joint deformities.Physical Therapy
Often used to provide relief of the inflammation and from bunion pain. Ultrasound therapy is a popular technique for treating bunions and their associated soft tissue involvement.Orthotics
Shoe inserts may be useful in controlling foot function and may reduce symptoms and prevent worsening of the deformity.
Surgical Options

When early treatments fail or the bunion progresses past the threshold for such options, podiatric surgery may become necessary to relieve pressure and repair the toe joint. Several surgical procedures are available to the podiatric physician. The surgery will remove the bony enlargement, restore the normal alignment of the toe joint, and relieve pain.

A simple bunionectomy, in which only the bony prominence is removed, may be used for the less severe deformity. Severe bunions may require a more involved procedure, which includes cutting the bone and realigning the joint.

Recuperation takes time, and swelling and some discomfort are common for several weeks following surgery. Pain, however, is easily managed with medications prescribed by your podiatric physician.

Bunion Tips
Wear comfortable shoes that conform to the shape of your foot.Wear shoes with a wide and deep toe box.Always fit the larger foot and have your feet sized each time you purchase shoes.Apply a commercial, nonmedicated bunion pad around the bony prominence.If your bunion becomes inflamed and painful, apply ice packs several times a day to reduce swelling.Avoid high-heeled shoes over two inches tall.Seek professional podiatric evaluation and assistance with uncomfortable or noticeable bunions.
Your podiatric physician/surgeon has been trained specifically and extensively in the diagnosis and treatment of all manner of foot conditions. This training encompasses all of the intricately related systems and structures of the foot and lower leg including neurological, circulatory, skin, and the musculoskeletal system, which includes bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, muscles, and nerves.

Posted on March 15th, 2014

Bunion Surgery-OrthoInfo - AAOS
Copyright 2012 American Academy of Orthopaedic SurgeonsBunion Surgery

Most bunions can be treated without surgery. But when nonsurgical treatments are not enough, surgery can relieve your pain, correct any related foot deformity, and help you resume your normal activities.An orthopaedic surgeon can help you decide if surgery is the best option for you. Whether you've just begun exploring treatment for bunions or have already decided with your orthopaedic surgeon to have surgery, this booklet will help you understand more about this valuable procedure.What Is A Bunion?

A bunion is one problem that can develop due to hallux valgus, a foot deformity. The term "hallux valgus" is Latin and means a turning outward (valgus) of the big toe (hallux). The bone which joins the big toe, the first metatarsal, becomes prominent on the inner border of the foot. This bump is the bunion and is made up of bone and soft tissue.Top of pageWhat Causes Bunions?

By far the most common cause of bunions is the prolonged wearing of poorly fitting shoes, usually shoes with a narrow, pointed toe box that squeezes the toes into an unnatural position. Bunions also may be caused by arthritis or polio. Heredity often plays a role in bunion formation. But these causes account for only a small percentage of bunions.
A study by the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society found that 88 percent of women in the U.S. wear shoes that are too small and 55 percent have bunions. Not surprisingly, bunions are nine times more common in women than men.
Top of pageCan Bunions Be Prevented?
Bunions often become painful if they are allowed to progress. But not all bunions progress. Many bunion problems can be managed without surgery. In general, bunions that are not painful do not need surgical correction. For this reason, orthopaedic surgeons do not recommend "preventive" surgery for bunions that do not hurt; with proper preventive care, they may never become a problem.

Bunion pain can be successfully managed in the vast majority of cases by switching to shoes that fit properly and don't compress the toes. Your orthopaedic surgeon can give you more information about proper shoe fit and the types of shoes that would be best for you.

Follow these general points of shoe fit:Do not select shoes by the size marked inside the shoe. Sizes vary among shoe brands and styles. Judge the shoe by how it fits on your foot.Select a shoe that conforms as nearly as possible to the shape of your foot.Have your feet measured regularly. The size of your feet change as you grow older.Have both feet measured. Most people have one foot larger than the other. Fit to the largest foot.Fit at the end of the day when your feet are the largest.Stand during the fitting process and check that there is adequate space (3/8" to 1/2") for your longest toe at the end of each shoe. Make sure the ball of your foot fits well into the widest part (ball pocket) of the shoe.Do not purchase shoes that feel too tight, expecting them to "stretch" to fit.Your heel should fit comfortably in the shoe with a minimum amount of slippage.Walk in the shoe to make sure it fits and feels right. (Fashionable shoes can be comfortable.)
Some shoes can be modified by stretching the areas that put pressure on your toes. Splints to reposition the big toe and orthotics (special shoe inserts shaped to your feet) also may relieve pain. For bunions caused by arthritis, medications can be prescribed to reduce pain and swelling.
Top of pageIs Bunion Surgery For You?
If nonsurgical treatment fails, you may want to consider surgery. Many studies have found that 85 to 90 percent of patients who undergo bunion surgery are satisfied with the results.

Reasons that you may benefit from bunion surgery commonly include:
Severe foot pain that limits your everyday activities, including walking and wearing reasonable shoes. You may find it hard to walk more than a few blocks (even in athletic shoes) without significant pain.Chronic big toe inflammation and swelling that doesn't improve with rest or medications.Toe deformity-a drifting in of your big toe toward the small toes.Toe stiffness-inability to bend and straighten your toe.Failure to obtain pain relief from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Their effectiveness in controlling toe pain varies greatly from person to person.Failure to substantially improve with other treatments such as a change in shoes and anti-inflammatory medication.
As you explore bunion surgery, be aware that so-called "simple" or "minimal" surgical procedures are often inadequate "quick fixes" that can do more harm than good. And beware of unrealistic claims that surgery can give you a "perfect" foot. The goal of surgery is to relieve as much pain, and correct as much deformity as is realistically possible. It is not meant to be cosmetic.
Top of pageTypes of Bunion Surgery
Orthopaedic surgeons use many different surgical procedures to treat bunions. The common goal of these procedures is to realign the joint, relieve pain, and correct deformity. These procedures include:

Repair of the Tendons and Ligaments Around the Big Toe

These tissues may be too tight on one side and too loose on the other, creating an imbalance that causes the big toe to drift toward the others. Often combined with an osteotomy, this procedure shortens the loose tissues and lengthens the tight ones.

Removal of the damaged joint surfaces, followed by the insertion of screws, wires, or plates to hold the surfaces together until it heals. Used for patients with severe bunions, severe arthritis, and when other procedures have failed.

Removal of the bump on the toe joint; used only for an enlargement of the bone with no drifting of the big toe. This procedure is seldom used because it rarely corrects the cause of the bunion.
Resection Arthroplasty

Removal of the damaged portion of the joint, used mainly for patients who are older, have had previous bunion surgery, or have severe arthritis. This creates a flexible "scar" joint.

The surgical cutting and realignment of the joint. Your orthopaedic surgeon will choose the procedure best suited to your condition.Top of pageThe Orthopaedic Evaluation
If you are interested in exploring bunion surgery, your family physician can refer you to an orthopaedic surgeon for an evaluation.

The orthopaedic evaluation consists of three components:
A medical history, in which your orthopaedic surgeon gathers information about your general health and asks you about the extent of your pain and ability to find shoes that don't hurt. He or she also will ask you about other medical conditions that could affect your surgical outcome. Diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis, for example, can increase the risk of infection and interfere with proper healing. Circulatory problems can increase postoperative pain and impede healing as well.A physical examination to assess the extent of the misalignment and soft tissue damage and to check for the presence of other foot deformities, such as hammertoes and corns.X-rays to determine the extent of damage and deformity in your toe joint.

Your orthopaedic surgeon will review the results of your evaluation with you and discuss whether surgery would be the best method to relieve your pain and deformity. Nonsurgical options, including switching to different shoes, also will be discussed.
Your orthopaedic surgeon also will explain the potential risks and complications of bunion surgery at this time.
Top of pageRealistic Expectations About Bunion Surgery
An important factor in deciding whether to have bunion surgery is understanding what the procedure can and can not do. The vast majority of patients who undergo bunion surgery experience a dramatic reduction of foot pain after surgery, along with a significant improvement in the alignment of their big toe.

Bunion surgery will not allow you to wear a smaller shoe size or narrow-pointed shoes. In fact, you will have some shoe restrictions for the rest of your life. Always follow the recommendations for shoe fit presented in this booklet.

Remember that the main cause of the bunion deformity is a tight fitting shoe. If you return to that type of shoe wear, your bunion will reappear.
Top of pagePreparing for Surgery

If you decide to have bunion surgery, you may be asked to have a complete physical with your family physician before surgery to assess your health. If you have heart or lung conditions or other chronic illnesses, you will need a preoperative medical clearance from your family physician.
Before surgery, tell your orthopaedic surgeon about the medications you are taking. He or she will tell you which medications you should and should not stop taking before surgery.

Tests, including blood samples, a cardiogram, a chest X-ray, a urine sample, and special foot X-rays, may be ordered by your orthopaedic surgeon to help him or her plan your procedure.
Top of pageYour Surgery

Almost all bunion surgery is done on an outpatient basis. You will most likely be asked to arrive at the hospital or surgical center one or two hours prior to surgery.
After admission, you will be evaluated by a member of the anesthesia team. Most bunion surgery is performed under ankle block anesthesia, in which your foot is numb, but you are awake. General or spinal anesthesia is used occasionally. The anesthesiologist will stay with you throughout the procedure to administer other medications, if necessary, and to make sure you are comfortable.

The surgery takes about one hour. Afterwards, you will be moved to the recovery room. You will be ready to go home in one or two hours.
Top of pagePossible Complications After Surgery
Fewer than 10 percent of patients experience complications from bunion surgery. Possible complications can include infection, recurrence of the bunion, nerve damage, and continued pain.

If complications occur, they are treatable but may affect the extent of your full recovery. Your orthopaedic surgeon will explain various options in treating these complications.
Top of pageYour Recovery at Home
The success of your surgery will depend in large part on how well you follow your orthopaedic surgeon's instructions at home during the first few weeks after surgery. You will see your surgeon regularly for the next several months to make sure your foot heals properly.

Dressing Care

You will be discharged from the hospital with bandages holding your toe in its corrected position. You also will wear a special postoperative surgical shoe or cast to protect your foot. Your sutures will be removed about two weeks after surgery, but your foot will require continued support from dressings or a brace for six to eight weeks. To ensure proper healing, it is very important not to disturb your dressings and to keep them dry. Interference with proper healing could cause a recurrence of the bunion. Be sure to place a plastic bag over your foot while showering.
Bearing Weight

Your orthopaedic surgeon may advise you to use a walker, cane, or crutches for the first few days after surgery. You can gradually put more weight on your foot as your wound heals. However, walk only short distances during the first few weeks following surgery. You will probably be able to drive again within about a week.
Swelling and Shoe Wear

Keep your foot elevated as much as possible for the first few days after surgery, and apply ice as recommended by your orthopaedic surgeon to relieve swelling and pain. You will have some swelling in your foot for about six months. After your dressings have been removed, wear only athletic shoes or soft leather oxford type shoes for the first several months until the surgery has completely healed. Do not wear fashion shoes, including high heels, until after six months. Follow the tips on shoe fit presented earlier in this booklet when selecting your shoes. This will help prevent the recurrence of your bunion.
Exercises to Strengthen Your Foot
Some exercises or physical therapy may be recommended to restore your foot's strength and range of motion after your surgery. Your surgeon may recommend exercises using a surgical band to strengthen your ankle or marbles to restore motion in your toes. Always start these exercises slowly and follow your surgeon's or physical therapist's instructions regarding repetitions.

Your orthopaedic surgeon may prescribe antibiotics to prevent infection for several days after your surgery. Pain medication to relieve surgical discomfort also will be prescribed for several days.
Top of pageAvoiding Problems After Surgery
Though uncommon, complications can occur following bunion surgery. Contact your orthopaedic surgeon if:
Your dressing loosens, comes off or gets wet.Your dressing is moistened with blood or drainage.You develop side effects from postoperative medications.
Also, call your orthopaedic surgeon immediately if you notice any of the following warning signs of infection:
Fever.Chills.Persistent warmth or redness around the dressing.Increased or persistent pain.Significant swelling in the calf above the treated foot.Top of page

Your orthopaedic surgeon is a medical doctor with extensive training in the diagnosis and nonsurgical and surgical treatment of the musculoskeletal system, including bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, muscles, and nerves.
This brochure has been prepared by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and is intended to contain current information on the subject from recognized authorities. However, it does not represent official policy of the Academy and its text should not be construed as excluding other acceptable viewpoints. Persons with questions about a medical condition should consult a physician who is informed about the condition and the various modes of treatment available.
Last reviewed: September 2012
Co-Developed by the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society
AAOS does not endorse any treatments, procedures, products, or physicians referenced herein. This information is provided as an educational service and is not intended to serve as medical advice. Anyone seeking specific orthopaedic advice or assistance should consult his or her orthopaedic surgeon, or locate one in your area through the AAOS "Find an Orthopaedist" program on this website.Copyright 2012 American Academy of Orthopaedic SurgeonsRelated LinksOrthoInfo
The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
6300 N. River Road
Rosemont, IL 60018
Phone: 847.823.7186

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